1.3 Standardized Tests and Analyses

1.3      Standardized Tests and Analyses

Definition: The use of standardized scales and tests to establish a quantifiable rating of the patient’s ability or presentation.  This data is initially used to formulate and justify prosthetic /orthotic treatment, and subsequently to measure change. Basic knowledge of all of these measures are assumed and used to justify treatment(s). However, it is not assumed that the Prosthetist/Orthotist is responsible for implementing all the procedures listed below.

Code Procedure Description
1 Range of motion


Evaluate passive/active range of motion (ROM) of anatomical joints. Compare with normal standards.
2 Manual muscle testing


Evaluate muscle strength using standardized manual muscle rating scale.
3 Anthropometric measurements


Obtain appropriate anthropometric data using simple measurements, digital photography, or laser imaging.  May include measurements such as length, diameter, circumference, weight, height, leg length discrepancy, and varus/valgus angulation.
4 Joint stability


Evaluate joint stability. Compare with normal standards.
5 Edema


Evaluate edema using preferred scale.
6 Wound evaluation and classification


Evaluate wound and classify using preferred scale e.g. Bates Jensen Wound Assessment Tool (BWAT) Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) Wagner Scale, Carville scale.
7 Sensory testing


Evaluate patient for sensory perception using monofilament testing, vibration testing and dermatome levels.
8 Frailty Scale


Evaluate frailty using preferred scale e.g. FI-GCA frailty index
9 Balance Scale


Evaluate balance using preferred scale e.g. Berg balance scale
10 Cognition


Evaluate cognitive level using preferred scale e.g. Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE).
11 Independence Scale


Evaluate level of independence using preferred scale.
12 Functional Scale



Evaluate level of function using preferred scale e.g. Timed-Up-and-Go Test, Two Minute Walk Test, Functional Independence Measure (FIM)
13 Myo/EMG testing


Locate and evaluate, using Electromyograph (EMG), the quality of residual limb electrical signal sites to determine potential for treatment using myoelectric prosthesis/orthosis.
14 Falls risk


Evaluate patient for risk of falling using preferred scale
15 Emotional stability


Evaluate patient for emotional stability
16 Pain


Evaluate patient for levels of pain using preferred scale e.g. Visual Analogue Scale, Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale for Children
17 Activities of Daily

Living (ADL)


Evaluate patient for level of function in Activities of Daily Level (ADL) using preferred scale.
18 Depression Evaluate patient for depression using preferred scale e.g. Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
19 Skin colour matching By visual inspection or digital photography, compare skin colour of patient with sample colour swatches for purposes of accurate anatomical matching.
20 Center of pressure Evaluate laser weight-line projection relative to anatomical and mechanical joints in sagittal and frontal plane
21 Force sensor assessment Evaluation of force sensor data to determine forces acting between the interface and the patient.
22 Mobility Scale FMS functional mobility scale: (5;50;500 m walking distance with noted mobility aid) Timed up and go results Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), Ambulatory Status classified as Volpicelli et al 1987
23 Diagnostic imaging Diagnostic imaging: interpreting the reports from x-rays, bone scan, MRI, CT with application to prosthetic and/or orthotic treatment. Identify underlying anomalies not clinically apparent.


24 Neuro testing Locate and evaluate, using neuro stimulators, the quality electrical signal sites on the limb to determine potential for treatment using neuro stimulation prostheses/ orthoses.
25 Reflexes Test specific reflex or trigger points
26 Proprioception Test patient’s perception of position of body segment in space.
27 Respiratory function Test oxygen saturation levels

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